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Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

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Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  rowena___. on 8/10/2012, 9:19 am

After all your hard work in your garden, the last thing you want to do is leave anything unused! There are a variety of time-honored and well-tested means of preserving the harvest. The right one to use depends on the following considerations:


* how much space you have for storing food preserved by a given method (pantry space, freezer space, root cellar, etc.)
* how your foods will be used (winter provisions, camping staples, holiday gifts)
* your family's taste preferences
* your budget (canning and dehydrating have a large upfront cost, whereas freezing has an ongoing cost)


Of the known safe methods of food preservation, canning is the one most people think of and the one that intimidates most people, but it is much simpler than you might expect. Always use tested, research-based recipes--these recipes have been tested repeatedly in labs and have proven to control for microorganism growth. Be aware that some methods used in previous generations have been disproved as safe and reliable, so avoid those and go with methods that will give you consistent, safe results. The two safe methods of canning food for long-term shelf storage are boiling water bath and pressure canning. Methods such as open kettle canning, jar inversion, oven canning, and steam canning should be avoided until tested and research-based safe methods have been established.

One of the best ways to get started is with small batch canning, allowing you to put up just a few jars at a time while you're making dinner!

To get started, the equipment you'll need is:

* canning jars--use only jars designed for home canning--commercial jars are not intended for repeated high-heat exposure
* canning jar rings--these can be used over and over so long as they are in good condition and do not have any rust
* new lids--these can be used only once, as the sealing compound loses its ability to reseal after being processed
* a pot that is large enough to hold your jars (for water bath canning), or a pressure CANNER (not a pressure cooker--you need something that allows you to adjust pressure for your product and altitude). The good news is that you don't need to invest in a dedicated "canning" pot--you can use what you already have. If you are only canning a little food, you only need a little pot!

Those are all the "must haves". There are other pieces of equipment that are helpful but not required, and there are substitutes that will work in a pinch.

* jar lifter--you'll need something to help you remove the hot jars from the boiling water. if you don't have a lifter, you can use a pair of tongs that have some rubber bands wrapped around them for friction
* canning rack--this elevates the jars in the pot so the boiling water can circulate freely. you canuse unneeded canning jar rings in the bottom of the pot in a pinch.
* large-mouth funnel--personally, i think of this as a necessity--it allows you to fill your jars with a minimum of spills and waste. i have not yet discovered a satisfactory substitute for this.
* you can see some of my own canning hacks at this post on my blog: http://www.romesticity.com/2010/06/canning-hacks.html

You'll also need these supplies from your kitchen:


* pots for preparing your produce
* measuring cups and spoons
* cutting board and knife
* clean towels for wiping jar rims and spills
* an apron if, like me, you are a slob



It takes just six steps to properly and safely can your foods! The basic steps for canning any food are the same:


1. Prepare your jars and lids: wash them, set them in the canning pot and let them simmer while you prepare your foods. Lids should never boil, as that will prevent the gaskets from making a good seal.
2. Prepare your produce according to a tested recipe. Do not be too creative with this--the recipes are designed to ensure that enzymatic action and harmful microorganisms will be destroyed--altering the ingredients can change the acidity of the recipe and render it unsafe for long-term shelf storage.
3. Fill your jars, leaving the required headspace for expansion (this will be indicated in your recipe). Wipe the rim of the jar with a clean towel so the gasket can make full contact. Place the lids and rings, tightening just a bit more than finger tight.
4. Heat process your jars. If using a recipe that calls for boiling water bath processing, you will begin timing when the water comes to a full rolling boil. If processing a food that requires pressure canning, follow your canner's manufacturer's instructions regarding venting and bringing the canner up to pressure.
5. Once processing is complete, allow your jars to cool undisturbed until the are cool all the way to the center (12-24 hours, depending on the food item and the temperature in your home). Listen for the "ping" of the lids--that's your signal that the jars have formed a vacuum seal!
6. Remove the rings, wipe your jars clean, then label and store your jars in a cool, dark place. (But first--be sure to make all your family members and friends admire your handiwork, loudly and with much rejoicing).


For a more in-depth overview of home canning you can visit this post on my blog, which includes links to four of the top home canning instructional websites on the internet: http://www.romesticity.com/2011/08/home-canning-1.html

And to get you started, here's an easy recipe for canning a small batch of the most popular garden produce item there is: tomatoes!

For each quart jar of canned tomatoes you will need approximately 3 pounds of fresh tomatoes. The specific amount depends on the type of tomato you are canning. If you use fleshier fruits, you will need a little less, if you use more watery fruits you will need a little more.

Fill one pot with hot water and put your clean jars in it to simmer.

Meanwhile, core and peel your tomatoes. The easy way to peel them is to drop them in a pot of boiling water for about 60 seconds then remove them quickly to a bowl of ice water. The peels will just slip off. Reserve this liquid for the next step.

Remove your warm jars from the pot and pour in 2 tablespoons of bottled lemon juice per quart or 1 tablespoon per pint (the acid helps preserve the tomatoes--don't skip this step!). Roughly chop your tomatoes and put them in the warm jars, leaving about 1/2" headspace at the top. Pour the reserved hot water over the tomatoes, up to the 1/2" headspace. Use a chopstick or plastic spatula to remove air bubbles from the jar. You may add salt if you wish, but it is not necessary for safe preservation.

Wipe the rims, place the lids on top, tighten the rings, then put the jars into a pot of simmering water. There should be enough water to cover at least 1" above the top of the jars--add more if needed. Cover the pot, bring it to a rolling boil and begin timing. Your tomatoes are ready to remove from the pot when they have processed for 40 minutes (pints) or 45 minutes (quarts).

NOTE: As you go higher in altitude, the atmospheric pressure is reduced, making water boil at lower temperatures. To compensate, you must lengthen your processing time according to your altitude. If you are processing at an altitude higher than 1,000 feet above sea level, you will need to adjust your time according to this chart from Ball Canning: http://www.freshpreserving.com/guides/AltitudeCharts.pdf You can find your altitude at Altitude.org: http://www.altitude.org/find_altitude.php

Congratulations--you just canned your own food! Use your home-canned tomatoes exactly as you would canned tomatoes from the store. And remember: pay it forward! The tradition of home canning is "each one, teach one"--it's your turn to help keep this art alive for generations to come!


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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  camprn on 8/10/2012, 9:27 am

Hooray! A fabulous rookie topic. Thanks

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  jillintx on 8/10/2012, 10:59 am

Great topic - one that will benefit many people. Thank you!

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  RoOsTeR on 8/10/2012, 11:20 am

What a great rookie topic! And one that I'm very interested in right now as I'm looking into different methods of food storage and canning. Rowena, this is a very informative, thought out and organized topic. Thanks for all the great information and efforts involved in putting this together for us

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Intro to canning

Post  memart1 on 8/10/2012, 2:38 pm

Last year I had a lot of tomatoes. I peeled and cored them, then cooked them in my slow cooker with onion and various herbs and spices etc. to make a spaghetti sauce. I put the sauce in containers and froze it. This year I would like to can the sauce. Could I make the sauce and put it in pint jars, then process it in a hot water bath as stated in your intro for 40 minutes? Do I need the lemon juice for this? My herbs are mostly basil and oregano. I also use some sugar.

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  camprn on 8/10/2012, 3:08 pm

@memart1 wrote: This year I would like to can the sauce. Could I make the sauce and put it in pint jars, then process it in a hot water bath as stated in your intro for 40 minutes? Do I need the lemon juice for this? My herbs are mostly basil and oregano. I also use some sugar.
Yes you do need the lemon juice, a lot of tomatoes are just not acid enough and the TBSP of lemon juice really does not effect the flavor of the sauce at all. If you are just starting canning, I recommend getting yourself a copy of Ball's Blue Book. I think I paid $7 for mine and it is an invaluable resource. Welcome to the world of canning! clap

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  cheyannarach on 8/10/2012, 3:53 pm

I am so excited to can tomatoes, I am a total rookie canner and so far have managed one jar of pickled beets and one jar of pickled peppers. Thank you Thank you Thank you for this awesome rookie topic!cheers Very Happy

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  rowena___. on 8/10/2012, 7:19 pm

@memart1 wrote:Last year I had a lot of tomatoes. I peeled and cored them, then cooked them in my slow cooker with onion and various herbs and spices etc. to make a spaghetti sauce. I put the sauce in containers and froze it. This year I would like to can the sauce. Could I make the sauce and put it in pint jars, then process it in a hot water bath as stated in your intro for 40 minutes? Do I need the lemon juice for this? My herbs are mostly basil and oregano. I also use some sugar.

the thing that throws off the recipe is the onion, as it is a low-acid food. you'd need to pressure can your sauce to prevent the onion from hosting botulism. the process is exactly the same as for water bath canning, except that you have to use a pressure CANNER (not the same as a pressure cooker). this is still very easy! many people are unnecessarily fearful of pressure cooking or canning, yet it is much simpler and much safer than driving a car which nobody thinks twice about.

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  cheyannarach on 8/10/2012, 7:25 pm

Someone told me you could can salsa in a waterbath and didn't have to pressure cook. Now I am guessing this is wrong? I want to make salsa and spaghetti sauce too! I have no problems omitting the onion though.

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  rowena___. on 8/10/2012, 7:29 pm

salsa recipes call for acidification that compensates for the other ingredients. some sauce recipes do too but without knowing what the balance is in your specific sauce, pressure canning is the only method that i can recommend with confidence.


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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  cheyannarach on 8/10/2012, 8:13 pm

Well I will be sure to keep that in mind, I don't have a canning recipe yet I have only ever made it fresh! Thank you!

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  camprn on 8/10/2012, 9:14 pm

I process my salsa in a boiling water bath. There are several salsa recipes in the Ball Blue Book.

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  Cincinnati on 8/11/2012, 12:29 am

I like my vegetables crisp and my salsa fresh and uncooked. I also prefer my marinara sauce freshly made and not canned and kept for months. Is there a way to can them without overcooking them? 40 minutes in boiling water (or the equivalent in a pressure cooker) seems like overcooked to me.

Is there a way to can "nearly raw" vegetables?

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  cheyannarach on 8/11/2012, 12:44 am

Better over done than under done I always say, bahahaha, I really do say this but am usually talking about chicken, pork, and fish.

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  ericam on 8/11/2012, 12:45 am

Thanks for a great topic, you've inspired me. Canning is not a big thing in Australia but there are systems around. I was at my mum and dad's this morning and I brought this little beauty home.



No idea if it still works, hubby is testing it now, but this was my grandmother's Vacola. My sister has all the jars as she was going to try and sell them a few years ago but never did it so I'm going to get them back off her at some point and maybe this summer I'll be able to try my hand at canning!

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  ericam on 8/11/2012, 1:49 am

Slight flaw in my plan....just rang my sister and she got rid of the jars two weeks ago after tripping over them one too many times. Doh!

Need a new plan now....

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  cheyannarach on 8/11/2012, 3:21 am

That stinks, if you have a True value they (jars) are on sale right now for $7-$8 a piece.

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  ericam on 8/11/2012, 6:28 am

Thanks for the thought Cheyannarach but I'm in Australia so I don't think they'd ship them to me! Wink

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  camprn on 8/11/2012, 9:44 am

@ericam wrote:Thanks for the thought Cheyannarach but I'm in Australia so I don't think they'd ship them to me! Wink
Wow, Canning jars are expensive in Oz. http://redbacktrading.com.au/index1.html

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  GWN on 8/11/2012, 10:22 am

That stinks, if you have a True value they (jars) are on sale right now for $7-$8 a piece.

Cheyanne, that sounds incredibly expensive..... DID you mean per jar, or per case?
They are about 8-9 dollars a case here

I bought several cases this year at a garage sale for 5 dollars a case.

ROWENA thank you so much that was a great topic

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  cheyannarach on 8/11/2012, 10:41 am

@GWN wrote:
That stinks, if you have a True value they (jars) are on sale right now for $7-$8 a piece.

Cheyanne, that sounds incredibly expensive..... DID you mean per jar, or per case?
They are about 8-9 dollars a case here

I bought several cases this year at a garage sale for 5 dollars a case.

ROWENA thank you so much that was a great topic

Janet

Per case! Oops! That's a great garage sale buy!

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  ericam on 8/11/2012, 5:45 pm

@camprn wrote:
@ericam wrote:Thanks for the thought Cheyannarach but I'm in Australia so I don't think they'd ship them to me! Wink
Wow, Canning jars are expensive in Oz. http://redbacktrading.com.au/index1.html

Those Mason jars are expensive but even the Australian brand Vacola jars aren't much better. $8-$10 a jar! I had no idea you guys could get them that cheaply. How many jars in a case?

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  camprn on 8/11/2012, 6:57 pm

@ericam wrote:
@camprn wrote:
@ericam wrote:Thanks for the thought Cheyannarach but I'm in Australia so I don't think they'd ship them to me! Wink
Wow, Canning jars are expensive in Oz. http://redbacktrading.com.au/index1.html

Those Mason jars are expensive but even the Australian brand Vacola jars aren't much better. $8-$10 a jar! I had no idea you guys could get them that cheaply. How many jars in a case?
12. I wonder if it's any cheaper to buy internationally and then ship....... It really is a shame your sister gave them away.... can she get them back?

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  ericam on 8/11/2012, 11:06 pm

She dropped them off at a Red Cross store and even though she told them she had 10 boxes they weren't quite expecting that many jars so she doesn't really want to go back and beg for them. I would happily go but she lives 2 1/2 hours drive for me so it's not so easy.

The more I look at this though, the more I think I'm going to have to ring them and try to do a deal. There were over 130 jars plus lids and other bits and pieces so it would cost me a fortune to buy it all new!

Not sure about shipping things here, I'd imagine that it gets expensive very quickly since they would be fairly heavy.

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

Post  yolos on 8/22/2012, 4:31 pm

What is the difference in taste and texture and storage of following the recipies for "Raw Pack" and "Hot Pack".

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Re: Friday Rookie Topic: Introduction to Canning

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